DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SURGERY AND RADIOLOGY

 

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology is well equipped to impart education and practical training in the field of surgery, radiology and diagnostic imaging. The mandate of the department is to train undergraduate students in various surgical operative procedures and post-operative management. Operations are performed in the department and Clinical Complex under the guidance of specialists. All efforts are made to reach every student to make them well understand the subject. Outdoor clinical camps are organized in nearby village to expose the students to work under field conditions.

The Department has following sanctioned strength of Faculty:

Professor - 1

Associate Professor – 1

Assistant Professors – 3

VETERINARY CLINICAL COMPLEX (VCC)
VETERINARY CLINICAL PRACTICES-I (Third year) Credit Hours: 0+1
Orientation and understanding the working of Veterinary Clinics including hospital set up, administration and work
force management. Doctor client interaction, Orientation to local language or dialector local terminology of the diseases.
Registration, filling up registration cards, history taking, handling and restraining of animals. Preliminary clinical
examination such as recording of temperature, respiration, pulse, motility of digestive sustem etc. Familiarization and
practice of first aid procedures. Practice of collection, labeling, packaging and storage of laboratory samples. Preparation
and sterilization of surgical packs, instruments, drapes and operation theaters. Familiarisation with antiseptic dressing
techniques and bandaging.
VETERINARY CLINICAL PRACTICES-II (Fourth year) Credit Hours: 0+6
The students shall be Imparted the trainings on rotation basis in the following sections of Veterinary Clinical Complex
(VCC):
Ambulatory Section:
Each Veterinary college should adopt five villages where in the health, production and treatment part should be taken
care of in a holistic manner.
Handling, examination, diagnosis and treatment of sick animals in the field conditions under the supervision of faculty.
Ambulatory Clinics shall be operated by small groups of students and faculty of clinical departments through an
equipped ambulatory mobile unit.
Diagnostic Laboratory Section:
Veterinary Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory will be an important component of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex that
will impart training to students for laboratory evaluation and interpretation of clinical samples leading to definitive
diagnosis of diseases. This activity will improve competence of students in examining clinical samples (biochemical,
toxicological, pathological, parasitological and bacteriological) at the clinical complex, analyzing and correlating with
clinical findings and interpreting the results. Collection labeling, transportation, and preservation of body fluid samples,
writing results and report. Interpretation of data in relation to specific diseases. Clinical significance and interpretation of
serum glucose, lipids, proteins, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, ketone bodies, bilirubin and electrolytes from
samples. Clinical significance and interpretation of examination of urine samples. Clinical evaluation of blood
(Haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocytic count, erythrocytic sedimentation rate, total leukocytic count and
differential leukocytic count) from clinical samples. Evaluation of acid-base balance and interpretation. Biochemical
aspects of digestive disorders, endocrine functions. Liver, kidney and pancreatic function tests. Role of enzymes for
detection of tissue or organ affection. Preparation of microscopic slides from tissue collected for diagnosis and its
histopathological interpretation. Examination of biopsy and morbid material for laboratory diagnosis. Laboratory
evaluation and diagnosis of samples for parasitic diseases (routine faecal examinations- direct smear method, simple
sedimentation and floatation methods, quantitative faecal examination, pastural larval counts). Examination of skin
scrapings, examination of blood. Orientation to a clinical Microbiology laboratory, collection, transport and processing of
specimens from clinical cases for diagnosis of important bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Isolation of bacteria from
clinical samples, identification of bacteria by Grams staining and culturalor biochemical characteristics. Drug sensitivity
and rationale for therapy. Diagnosis of diseases by employing tests like Agar Gel precipitation Test, ELISA etc.
Note: The Laboratory shall run in collaboration with the Department of Pathology and Physiology and
Biochemistry. Biochemist appointed in this section will be involved in teaching of students regarding principles of
¹Hkkx IIIμ[k.M 4º Hkkjr dk jkti=k % vlk/kj.k 131
various diagnostic tests, normal and abnormal values in different species, differential diagnosis, correlating with
diseases and rationale of arriving at the conclusion.
Medicine Section:
Orientation and understanding the working of Veterinary Clinics including hospital set up, administration and work
force management. Understanding the different methods of record keeping, retrieval, processing, analysis and
interpretation of data. Involvement in outpatient department (OPD), Indoor patient, Critical care or intensive care unit,
sanitation, practice management etc. Doctor client interaction: Orientation to local language or dialect or local
terminology of the diseases.
Registration, filling up registration cards, clinical practice comprising of clinical examination of the patient, with
emphasis on history taking, examination techniques- palpation, percussion and auscultation. Familiarization and practice
of first aid procedures and emergency medicine. Practice of collection, labeling, packaging and evaluation of laboratory
samples. Relating generic and trade names of drugs along with their doses, indications and contraindications to
prescribed treatment regimens.
Systematic examination of various systems, recording of clinical observations viz. temperature, respiration, pulse, cardiac
sounds, cardiac function, pulmonary function, functional motility of digestive system, routes and techniques of
administration of medicaments. Tentative and confirmatory diagnosis and treatment of common clinical cases like
pharyngitis, laryngitis, stomatitis, indigestion, gastritis, ruminal impaction, tympany, enteritis, traumatic reticuloperitonitis,
traumatic pericarditis, pneumonia, haemoglobinurea, haematuria. milk fever, ketosis, rickets, osteomalacia,
common poisoning, and others clinical cases as reported in the section.
Collection of materials like urine, faeces, skin scraping, blood, milk and other body fluids for laboratory tests.
Preparation of case records; follow-up records etc. Readiness to treat and handle causalities and other emergencies in the
clinics. Learning and practicing passing of stomach and naso-gastric tube. Screening of livestock or poulty through tests,
mass diagnostic campaigns. Vaccination and other disease prevention and control programmes in the field.
Learning the use of various advance non invasive diagnostic aids like Ultrasonography, Opthalmoscope etc.
Practice of feeding of sick animals. Acts and regulations pertaining to generation and disposal of biomedical wastes in
veterinary institutions. Biomedical waste generation, handling, storage, sorting, coding, transportation and disposal.
Hazards of biomedical waste, and impact of biomedical waste on the environment.
Gynecology and Obstetrics Section
Practice of artificial insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, clinical examination and management of cases of anoestrus,
silent oestrus, infertility and conception failure. Treatment of cases of metritis, cervicitis , vaginits etc. Handling and
management of cases of retention of placentaorfetal membranes, ante and post partum prolapse of vagina. Examination
and handling of cases of dystocia, fetotomy, caesarian etc. Castration of male calves, breeding soundness, evaluation of
bulls, ovariohysterectomy and collection of cervical and vaginal mucus for cytology. Rectal examination and vaginal
examination of genitalia. Familiarization with common drugs and hormones used in reproductive disorders including
infertility, epidural and local anaesthesia for gynaecological cases. Filling of clinical case records and their maintenance.
Surgery and Radiology Section
Familiarization and understanding the use of equipments used in surgical sections of the VCC. Restraining and
positioning of different species of animals for examinations, diagnosis and surgical treatment. Prescription of common
drugs, their doses and uses in clinical surgical practice. Filling of clinical case records and their maintenance. Preparation
and sterilization of surgical packs, instruments, drapes and operation theaters. Passing of stomach tube and gastric tube.
Catheterization and urine collection.
Techniques of examination of neuromuscular and skeletal functions, Familiarisation with antiseptic dressing techniques,
bandaging, abdomino-centesis, thoracocentesis. Topography anatomy of animals. Radiographic positioning, terminology
and interpretation.
Treatment and Management of various surgical conditions including inflammation, wounds, abscess, cysts, tumors,
hernia, haematoma, hemorrhage, sinus, fistula, necrosis, gangrene, bum, sprain, tendinits etc. Management and treatment
of fractures, dislocations and other affections of joints, facial paralysis, Eye worm and other affections of Eye. Irregular
teeth and their rasping, tail amputation, knuckling, upward fixation of patella (medical patellar desmotomy) etc.
Familiarisation with the landmarks for the approach to various visceral organs, thoraco-centesis, abdominocentesis.
Rumenotomy, laparotomy, palpation and visualisation of viscera, urethrotomy, castration, vasectomy, caudectomy,
thoracotomy, cystotomy, cystorraphy and spleenectomy. Examination of horse for soundness, lameness and preparation
of certificate for soundness. Tenotomies, suturing of tendon, shortening of tendon.
132 THE GAZETTE OF INDIA : EXTRAORDINARY [PART III—SEC. 4]
Pet Animal Section
Registration, filling up registration cards, history taking. Relating generic and trade names of drugs alongwith their doses,
indications and contraindications to prescribed treatment regimens. Familiarization and practice of first aid procedures
and emergency medicine. Practice of collection, labeling, packaging and evaluation of laboratory samples. Clinical
examination techniques- palpation, percussion and auscultation, systematic examination of various systems, recording of
clinical observations viz. temperature, respiration, pulse, cardiac sounds, cardiac function, pulmonary function,
functional motility of digestive systems. Routes and techniques of administration of medicaments. Diagnosis and
treatment of diseases. Collection of materials like urine, faeces, skin scraping, blood, milk and other body fluids for
laboratory tests. Preparation of case records; follow-up records etc. Vaccination and other disease prevention and control
programmes. Practice of pregnancy diagnosis, examination of cases of anoestrus, silent oestrus and conception failure.
Rectal examination of genitalia, vaginal examination. Epidural and local anaesthesia for gynaecological cases.
Resteraining and positioning techniques for examination, diagnosis and surgical treatment. Preparation of surgical packs,
sterilization procedures for surgical instruments. Passing of stomach tube and gastric tube. Catheterization and urine
collection. Familiarization with antiseptic dressing techniques. Topography anatomy of pet animals. Radiographic
positioning and terminology.
The practical component will be dealt with internally. The examination for VCP shall be conducted twice a year i.e. first
practical exam after completion of 50% syllabus and the second one, when the course is completed but the second exam
shall comprise of entire syllabus. Annual professional examination shall be held after the completion of 100% course
content in each subject.
The examination should comprise of following components:
(i) Submission of 10 complete cases each of Surgery, Medicine, Gynaecology
(ii) Case presentation
(iii) Review of treatment of 5 cases
(iv) Written Objective Questions (Surgery, Medicine, Gynaecology
(v) and Lab diognosis)
(vi) Viva
(xiv) LIVESTOCK FARM COMPLEX
LIVESTOCK FARM PRACTICES (Third year) Cr. Hr. 0+2
Aim of Livestock farm practices is actual involvement of students in all aspects of animal rearing so that they can rear
animals on their own. Hands on training of the students on the overall farm practices of livestock management including
cleaning, feeding, watering, grooming, milking, routine health care, record keeping, sanitation, housing, fodder
production, preparation of mineral mixture, cost economic of fodder production. Care of pregnant animals, management
of parturition, care of neonatal and young stock. Management of broiler, layer farm and hatchery.
One full day per week comprising of six contact hours will be kept entirely for LFP where the students should be divided
into small batches on rotational basis wherein they should be actually involved in different activities such as milking,
feeding etc.
The practical component will be dealt with internally. The examination for LFC shall be conducted twice a year i.e. first
practical exam after completion of 50% syllabus and the second one, when the course is completed but the second exam
shall comprise of entire syllabus. Annual professional examination shall be held after the completion of 100% course
content in each subject.
The examination should comprise of following components:
(i) Day to day activities
(ii) Record Book
(iii) Written Objective Questions
(iv) Viva Any other suitable component as per conditions
(xv) DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY SURGERY AND RADIOLOGY
VETERINARY SURGERY AND RADIOLOGY Credit Hours:2+1
THEORY
UNIT-1(VETERINARY GENERAL SURGERY)
¹Hkkx IIIμ[k.M 4º Hkkjr dk jkti=k % vlk/kj.k 133
Introduction: Historical perspective, Definitions, classification of surgery, tenets of Halsted. Pre-operative, intraoperative
and post-operative considerations: History taking, physical examination, clinico-pathological testing, intraoperative
and postoperative care.
Sterilization and disinfection: Definitions, surgical sterilization, various methods of sterilization (Heat, chemical and
radiations etc.), disinfections.
Sutures: Definitions, suturing, factors influencing suturing, characteristics of an ideal suture material, types of suture
material-absorbable and non-absorbable, surgical knots, various suture patterns-apposition, eversion, inversion and
special.
Treatment of acute and chronic inflammation: Use of anti-inflammatory drugs and proteolytic enzymes. Haemostasis
(physical and chemical methods, systemic haemostats, surgical diathermy)
Basic surgical affections: Definitions, classification, diagnosis and treatment of abscess, tumour, cyst, hernia,
haematoma, necrosis, gangrene, burn and scald, frost bite and surgical affections of muscles, artery and vein, sinus and
fistula.
Wounds: Definition, classification, examination and diagnosis, general principles for treatment of aseptic, contaminated
and septic wounds, healing and factors affecting wound healing, complications of wounds and their remedies. Surgical
infection; their prevention and management: Classification of infection, Introduction to biomaterials and stem cell
therapy in wound management
Management of surgical shock. Principles of fluid therapy in surgical patients.
UNIT-2 (VETERINARY ANAESTHESIOLOGY)
Introduction: Development of anaesthesiology, Terminology, classification and indications. General considerations of
anaesthesia: Factors affecting anaesthesia and selection of anaesthetic technique, factors modifying uptake, distribution
and elimination, patient evaluation, categories of patients according to physical status, selection of anaesthetic agent and
patient preparation. Pain and its management in animals Local and regional anaesthesia: Definitions, local anaesthetics,
mechanism of action Premedication, properties and use of different preanaesthetics: Uses of premedication, ,
Anticholinergic, sedatives and tranquilizers (Phenothiazine derivatives, Benzodiazepines, Butyrophenones, Narcotic
analgesics, Alpha-2 agonists, dosage chart of all the drugs.
General anaesthesia: Definitions, methods of induction of anaesthesia, Intravenous anaesthetics (Total intravenous
anaesthesia), monitoring of anaesthesia.
Inhalation anaesthesia: Advantages of inhalant anaesthetics, types of inhalant anaesthetics their properties and effect on
various systems, methods of administration of inhalant anaesthesia.
Dissociative anaesthesia: Definition, drugs, clinical application, properties and effect on various body systems.
Avian, wild, zoo, exotics and lab animal anaesthesia and capture myopathy
Anaesthetic emergencies and management, Toxicity, antidote and reversal agents.
UNIT-3 (VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING TECHNIQUES)
Introduction to Radiology-General terminology of radiology, Physical properties of X-Rays, Scope and uses of
Radiology, Directional terms for veterinary radiology. Production of X-rays and factors influencing production of Xrays.
Radiation hazards and safety measures- Scattered radiation, Biological effects of radiation, Direct and indirect
effects, Early and late effects, Radiation sensitivity of different body cells, Radiation protection, General principles of
radiation safety, Radiation monitoring devices, Requirement of an ideal radiographic section. The statutory requirements
of radiology set-up as per Atomic Energy Regulatory Board of India (AERB). Production of quality diagnostic
radiograph. Recording of image- Manual and digital processing of X-ray films, storage and retrieval system.
Radiographic Quality and faults- Radiographic detail, density and contrast and factors affecting them, Radiographic
faults, their possible causes and prevention. Contrast radiography- Definition, indications, contraindications and types of
contrast radiography, Different contrast materials and their use, Techniques of some selected contrast radiography in
animals(Barium swallow, Retrograde urography etc) Diagnostic ultrasonography- Principles, indications, techniques and
artifacts of ultrasonography. Advanced diagnostic imaging tools- The brief introduction to the use and limits of some
advanced imaging techniques, Interventional radiology - CAT scanning, MRI, etc
UNIT-4: (REGIONAL SURGERY-I)
Head and Neck: Affections of lips, cleft palate, tongue, cheek, and their treatment: General anatomical considerations,
avulsion of lip, cleft lip ranula, neoplasm and traumatic injuries. Affections of teeth and jaws and their treatment: General
anatomical considerations, Developmental abnormalities, dental tartar, periodontal disease, overgrown molars, fractures
and luxations of jaw. Affections of nose, face, ear, head and horn and their treatment: General anatomical considerations.
134 THE GAZETTE OF INDIA : EXTRAORDINARY [PART III—SEC. 4]
Brachycephalic syndrome, Stenotic nostrils, nasal polyps, empyema of sinuses, fracture and avulsion of horn, horn
cancer, aural haematoma, otitis. Affections of eye and their treatment: General anatomical considerations and
examination of eye. Affections of eyelids and nictitating membrane and their treatment: entropion, ectropion, chalazion,
sty, Cherry eye and traumatic injuries. Affections of lachrymal apparatus, eyeball and orbit and their treatment: occlusion
of nasolacrimal duct, traumatic proptosis, panophthalmia, orbital neoplasms, glaucoma, eye worms. Affections of cornea,
iris and lens and their treatment: corneal ulcers, corneal opacity, Kerato Conjunctivitis Sicca (KCS), prolapse of iris,
corneal dermoid, corneal lacerations and perforations, cataract. Affections of guttural pouch, oesophagus and their
treatment: General anatomical considerations. Empyema, tympanitis and Mycosis of guttural pouch, oesophageal
diverticulum, megaoesophagus, achalasia and choke. Affections of glands of head and neck and their treatment: General
anatomical considerations. Salivary mucocele, sialoliths, salivary fistula Affections of neck and their treatment: General
anatomical considerations. Yoke gall, yoke abscess, fistulous withers, poll evil, torticollis. Affections of larynx and
Trachea: Tracheal collapse, stenosis, roaring in horses, dorsal entrapment of soft palate in horses and camels, emergency
tracheotomy. Management of ocular emergencies. Tracheotomy
UNIT-5: (REGIONAL SURGERY-II)
Thorax and Abdomen: Thoracic affections: Surgical approaches, perforated wounds, pyothorax, pneumothorax,
pneumocele, Diaphragmatic hernia and traumatic pericarditis in cattle. Abdominal affections: Surgical approach to the
abdomen in different animal species. Common surgical affections of the stomach in dogs and their management: dilation
and torsion of stomach, gastric ulcerations, foreign bodies in the stomach, pyloric stenosis. etc Surgical affections of the
stomach in large animal and their management: Ruminal impaction, traumatic reticulitis, omasal and abomasal impaction
and abomasal displacement. Surgical affections of small intestines and their management: Intestinal obstruction,
intussusception and strangulation (volvulus). Techniques of intestinal anastomosis. Surgical affections of large intestine
and their management: Caecal dilatation and torsion, rectal prolapse, rectal and perineal tear, recto-vaginal fistula.
Surgical affections of anus and perineal region and their management: Atresia-ani, anal stenosis, anal sac impaction.
Other surgical affections of abdomen and their management: Perforating wounds and fistulae of abdomen, umbilical
hernia, ventral abdominal hernia, inguinal and scrotal hernia, perineal hernia. Urinary system: Urolithiasis and its
management. Urolithiasis in small and large animals. Patent urachus, ectopic ureter. Surgical management of equine
colic. Genital system: Surgical affections of male genital system and their management, prostatic enlargementor
hyperplasiaor neoplasm, Phimosis, paraphimosis, preputial prolapse, penile amputation. Castration, vasectomy, scrotal
ablation in large and small animals. Surgical affections of female genital system and their management: Canine
transmissible venereal tumour. Ovariohysterectomy and caesarean section. Applications of rigid and flexible endoscopes
in the management of surgical disorders. Integumentary system: Surgical affections of udder, teat and canine mammary
neoplasms. Surgical affections of tail and tail docking Wildorzoo animal surgery(only awareness)
UNIT-6 (ORTHOPEDICS AND LAMENESS)
Body conformation of the horse in relation to lameness (trunk, fore limb and hind limb).
Lameness: Its definition classification and diagnosis. General methods of therapy for lameness. Body and limb
conformation in relation to lameness in equine.
Equine lameness: Shoulder slip (sweeny), bicipital bursitis, omarthritis, capped elbow, radial paralysis, carpitis. bent
knee, and knock- knee. Hygroma of knee, open knee, blemished knee. Fracture of carpal bone, fracture of accessory
carpal, contraction of digital flexors. Splints, sore shin, wind puffs, sesamoid iris Osstots, ringbone, quittor, side bone,
Navicular disease, pyramidal disease. Laminitis, sand crack, seedy toe, fractures of third phalanx, pedal osteitis, and sole
penetration. Canker, thrush and corn, Monday morning disease, cording up, myositis of psoas, Mac thrombosis, Crural
paralysis, subluxation of sacroiliac joint rupture of round ligament trochantric bursitis. Upward fixation of patella,
stringhalt, gonitis, chondromalacia of patella, rupture of tendoachilles, rupture of peroneus tertius, fibrotic myopathy and
ossifying myopathy. Thoroughpin, bog spavin, spavin, curb, capped hock.
Canine lameness: Intervertebral disc diseases, elbow and hip dysplasia, rupture of cruciate ligament, elbow hygroma etc.;
their management, Onychectomy.
Bovine lameness: Contusion of sole, ulceration of sole, septic laminitis, avulsion of hoof and subluxation of patella,
interdigital fibroma, cyst, sand crack, and hoof deformities.
Fracture: Definitions, classification, fracture healing and complications.
Fracture: The preliminary assessment and management of fractures. Techniques of external immobilization of fractures.
Techniques of internal immobilization of fractures. Management of fracture complications
Luxations: Definition, signs, diagnosis. Management of common joint luxations in animals.
Spinal trauma, diagnosis and its management
Rehabilitation and physiotherapy of orthopaedic patients
¹Hkkx IIIμ[k.M 4º Hkkjr dk jkti=k % vlk/kj.k 135
PRACTICAL
UNIT-1(VETERINARY GENERAL SURGERY)
Introduction to layout of operation theatre and surgical unit. Introduction of common surgical equipment and
instruments. Suture materials, surgical knots and suture patterns. General examination of surgical patients. Preparation of
surgical patients. Other operation theatre routines like sterilization, preparation of theatre, Surgeon and surgical pack.
Bandaging and basic wound management Demonstration (or Audio visual aids) of surgery, control of haemorrhage and
suturing
UNIT-2 (VETERINARY ANAESTHESIOLOGY)
Familiarization with anaesthetic apparatus, monitoring equipment and accessories. Methods of local infiltration analgesia
(Linear ring block, inverted L block etc.) Regional nerve block demonstration and practice (Auriculopalpebral block,
Peterson block or 4 point retrobulbar nerve block, Paravertebral, epidural etc.) Intravenous regional anaesthesia in cattle.
Administration of general anaesthesia in small and large animals. (Demonstration and practice). Administration of
inhalant anaesthesia (Demonstration). Monitoring of general anaesthesia. Management of anaesthetic emergencies, use of
artificial respirator and analeptics. Visit to a wild animal facility or audio-visual aids or both.
UNIT-3 (VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING TECHNIQUES)
Familiarization with the operation of the x-ray unit. Formulation of X-ray exposure technique charts, Adoption of safety
measures and film processing. Positioning and radiography of different parts of the body in small and large animals
Handling, viewing and interpretation of radiograph. Familiarization with the film contrast, density and details, common
radiographic artifacts. Radiographic pathology of the head, neck and thorax of large and small animals. Radiographic
pathology of abdomen of large and small animals. Radiographic pathology of the bones and joints of large and small
animals. Demonstration of contrast radiographic techniques in animals. Demonstration of ultrasonography in animals.
Fluoroscopy or Image intensifier (familiarization).
UNIT-4: (REGIONAL SURGERY-I)
Demonstration or Audio visual aids: Amputation of horn and disbudding. Tooth rasping, dental scaling. Examination of
ear (otoscopy). Examination of eye (General examination, Ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, fluorescein dye test, Scherimer
tear test, test for blindness). Operation for aural haematoma. Protection and bandage of eyes, tarsorhhaphy, third eyelid
flap, flushing of nasolacrimal duct
UNIT-5: (REGIONAL SURGERY-II)
Demonstration or Audio visual aids-Castration in different species in clinical cases and under animal birth control
programme in canine. Ovariohysterectomy in dogs and cats. Rumenotomy, Gastrotomy in dogs, Urethrotomy and
urethrostomy. Cystotomy and cystorrhaphy. Enterotomy or Enterectomy. Management of teat and udder affections.
Amputation of tail in different animals in clinical cases. Circumcision operation for prepucial and rectalprolapse.
Thoracocentesis and abdominocentesis.
UNIT-6 (ORTHOPEDICS AND LAMENESS)
Demonstration or Audio visual aids-Familiarization with various orthopaedic instruments and implants. Basic
orthopaedic and neurological examination in small and large animals. Nerve blocks in equine. Application of basic
physiotherapy techniques in animals. Basic limb stabilization techniques and splinting techniques. Application of cast in
small and large animals. Internal fixation techniques in animals. Medial patellar desmotomy in bovines. Examination of
animals for soundness and preparation of soundness certificate.
ANNUAL EXAMINATION
PAPERS U N I T S MAXIMUM MARKS WEIGHTAGE
THEORY
Paper-I 1, 2, 3 and 4 100 20
Paper-II 5 and 6 100 20
PRACTICAL
Paper-I 1, 2, 3 and 4 60 20
Paper - II 5 and 6 60 20
136 THE GAZETTE OF INDIA : EXTRAORDINARY [PART III—SEC. 4]
(xvi) DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
VETERINARY MEDICINE Credit Hours: 4+1
THEORY
UNIT-1 (GENERAL)
History and scope of Veterinary Medicine, concept of animal diseases. Concepts of diagnosis, differential diagnosis,
treatment and prognosis. General systemic states, hyperthermia, hypothermia, fever, septicemia, toxemia, shock, allergy,
anaphylaxis, oedema, coma, anaemia, common clinical poisonings and dehydration.
Estimates of diseases, patterns of disease, disease monitoring and surveillance, herd health and quarantine.
UNIT-2 (SYSTEMIC DISEASES)
Etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of the following
diseases of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, pig, dog, cat and poultry: Diseases of digestive, respiratory,
cardiovascular, urinary, nervous, musculoskeletal, haemopoietic, and lymphatic systems, skin, sense organs
including affections of peritoneum, liver and pancreas. Emergency medicine and critical care.
UNIT-3 (METABOLIC AND DEFICIENCY DISORDERS)
Diagnosis and management of diseases caused by deficiency of iron, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, selenium, calcium,
phosphorus, magnesium, iodine, vitamin A, D, E, B complex, K and C. Diseases of neonates, Alternative or integrated or
ethno veterinary medicine in animal disease management. Aetiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, differential
diagnosis, treatment prevention and control of metabolic or production and endocrine diseases of cattle, buffalo, sheep,
goat, horse, pig, dog, cat and poultry i.e. Milk fever, eclampsia, osteodystrophy fibrosa, lactation tetany, downer cow
syndrome, ketosis, fat cow syndrome, hypomagnesaemia, Nutritional haemoglobinuria, azoturia, diabetes,
hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, Addison’s disease and Gout.
UNIT-4 (ZOO AND WILD ANIMAL MEDICINE)
Principles of zoo hygiene, public health problems arising from zoos. Prevention, control and treatment of infectious,
parasitic, nutritional and metabolic diseases in zoo and wild animals including exotic birds. Acts and Rules related to Zoo
and wild animals. National and international organizations and institutions interlinked to wild and zoo animals – role and
functioning.
UNIT-5 (BACTERIAL, FUNGAL AND RICKETTSIAL DISEASES)
Aetiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of bacterial, fungal and
rickettsial diseases of livestock: mastitis, hemorrhagic septicaemia, brucellosis, tuberculosis, Johne's disease, listeriosis,
leptospirosis, campylobacteriosis, actinomycosis, actinobacillosis, bordetellosis, glanders, strangles, ulcerative
lymphangitis, colibacillosis, fowl typhoid, pullorum disease, fowl cholera, avian mycoplasmosis, spirochaetosis,
salmonellosis, swine erysipelas, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, anthrax,
clostridial infections, ehrlichiosis, chlamydosis, Q fever, anaplasmosis, dermatophilosis, aspergillosis, candidiasis,
histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, coccidiodomycosis, mycotoxicosis and rhinosporidiosis.
UNIT-6 (VIRAL AND PARASITIC DISEASES)
Aetiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of viral and parasitic
diseases of diseases of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, pig, dog, cat and poultry: Foot and mouth disease, rinderpest,
bovine viral diarrhoea, malignant catarrhal fever, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, ephemeral fever, blue tongue, sheep
pox, goat pox, PPR, classical swine fever, rabies, equine influenza, equine infectious anemia, equine rhinopneumonitis,
canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral disease, corona viral infection, adeno virus infection,
feline rhinotracheitis, feline pan leucopenia, feline infectious peritonitis, avian influenza, New Castle disease, Marek's
disease, avian leucosis, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, avian encaphalomyelitis, chicken reo virus,
fowl pox, infectious bursal disease, chicken infectious anemia, inclusion body hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome,
emerging and exotic viral diseases of global importance.
Parasitic diseases: Trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, protozoan infections and external parasites of clinical importance.
UNIT-7 (JURISPRUDENCE, ETHICS, AND ANIMAL WELFARE)
Legal duties of veterinarians, laws related to medicine, evidence, common offences against animals and laws related to
these offences. Examination of living and dead animals in criminal cases. Cruelty to animals and bestiality. Legal aspects
of: Examination of animals for soundness, examination of injuries and post-mortem examination. Causes of sudden death
in animals. Collection and despatch of materials for chemical examination, detection of frauds-doping, alternation of
description, bishoping etc. Cattle slaughter and evidence procedure in courts. Provincial and Central Acts relating to
¹Hkkx IIIμ[k.M 4º Hkkjr dk jkti=k % vlk/kj.k 137
animals. Glanders and Farcy Act 1899 (13 of 1899). Dourine Act 1910 (5 of 1910), Laws relating to offences affecting
Public Health. Laws relating to poisons and adulteration of drugs. Livestock importation act, liability and insurance.
Code of conduct and ethics for veterinarians - the regulations made under the Act.
Animal welfare organizations and its role in animal welfare, welfare assessment, behaviour and animal welfare,
principles and philosophy of animal welfare, animal welfare ethics, improving animal welfare through legislation and
incentives, assessment of physiological, behavioural, disease and production measures of animal welfare, assessing
welfare in practice, environment enrichment, euthanasia, welfare of animals used in education and research and
transportation, religion and animal welfare, human and animal welfare conflict, veterinary disaster management,
human−animal interactions, economics and animal welfare and veterinarians as animal welfare educators
PRACTICAL
UNIT-1 (GENERAL)
Collection of history and general clinical examination. Collection, preservation, packing and dispatch of samples from
clinical cases. Nasogastric and orogastric intubation in animals. Oxygen therapy in veterinary practice. Gastric and
peritoneal lavage. Collection and examination of cerebrospinal fluid. Blood transfusion .
UNIT-2 (SYSTEMIC DISEASES)
Special examination of cardiovascular system. Examination of urinary system. Special examination of respiratory
system. Special examination of gastrointestinal system. ECG, Echocardiography, Ultrasonography, Endoscopy. Special
examination of sense organs. . Examination of eye and ear. Collection and examination of peritoneal fluid. Peritoneal
dialysis. Neurological examination in animals. Lymph node biopsy and bone marrow aspirate. Methods of medication.
Disease Estimation
UNIT-3 (ZOO AND WILD ANIMAL MEDICINE)
Management and restraint of zoo and exotic animals. Drug delivery in zoo and wild animals. Visit to Zooor Sanctuary.
Examination of veterolegal cases.
UNIT-4 (BACTERIAL, FUNGAL AND RICKETTSIAL DISEASES)
PRACTICALS
TB, JD and Mallein testing in animal. Brucellosis testing in animals. Physical and chemical tests for detection of
mastitis. Application of molecular and serology techniques on clinical samples for disease diagnosis. Pen-side diagnostic
tests for infectious diseases. Practical approaches to disease outbreak investigation and its control.
UNIT-5 (VIRAL AND PARASITIC DISEASES)
Collection and examination of skin scrapings- Parasitic, fungal, bacterial. Examination of blood for parasites. Dark field
microscopy. Application of Molecular and serological techniques or clinical samples for diagnosis of viral and parasitic
diseases.
ANNUAL EXAMINATION
PAPERS U N I TS MAXIMUM MARKS WEIGHTAGE
THEORY
Paper-I 1, 2, 3 and 4 100 20
Paper-II 5, 6 and 7 100 20
PRACTICAL
Paper-I 1, 2 and 3 60 20
Paper - II 4 and 5 60 20
(xvii) DEPARTMENT OF VETERINARY GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS
VETERINARY GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS Credit Hours 2+1
THEORY
UNIT- 1 (VETERINARY GYNAECOLOGY)
Bovine : Applied clinical anatomy and embryology of female reproductive tract - Hereditary and congenital anomalies of
female reproductive tract –Puberty and sexual maturity and their endocrine control- Delayed puberty- Its causes, clinical
138 THE GAZETTE OF INDIA : EXTRAORDINARY [PART III—SEC. 4]
approach, treatment and prevention of delayed puberty- Applied reproductive physiology and endocrinology of oestrous
cycle- Oestrous cycle and factors affecting the length of the oestrous cycle-Aberrations of oestrus and their clinical
management and problems in oestrus detection and oestrus detection aids –Transportation and survivability of gametes
in female reproductive tract-Follicular Dynamics and its clinical impact on fertility improvement- ovulation and
aberrations of ovulation-Incidence causes, diagnosis treatment and prevention of ovulatory failures- Fertilization and
aberrations of fertilization- Fertilization failures - embryonic mortality-incidence, causes, diagnosis, treatment and
prevention – Pathological affections of ovary, uterine tubes, uterus, cervix , vagina and external genitalia – Clinical
management of specific and non-specific forms of infectious infertility- Role of nutrition, climate and stress on
reproductive efficiency - Managemental causes of infertility- Anoestrus and repeat breeding syndrome - Diagnostic
procedures in infertility investigation – Clinical uses of hormones and drugs in the management of infertility- Surgical
procedures for correction of abnormalities of the female reproductive tract. Herd reproductive health management and
fertility parameters in individual animals and in herds.
Assisted reproductive techniques: Synchronization of estrus and ovulation and its principle. methodology and
implications- Multiple ovulation and Embryo transfer technology-In vitro fertilization.
Equines: oestrous cycle- Seasonality- breeding management- Aberrations of oestrous cycle and ovulations- Techniques
of Pregnancy diagnosis- Clinical management of specific and non-specific forms of infectious infertility- Diagnostic
procedures in infertility investigation
Ovines and caprines: oestrous cycle- Seasonality- Control of oestrous cycle and infertility
Swines : oestrous cycle- breeding management- Techniques of Pregnancy diagnosis and infertility
Canines and Felines : oestrous cycle- breeding management- Phantom pregnancy- Medical termination of pregnancy –
Aberrations of oestrous cycle- Medical and surgical management of affections of ovary, uterine tubes, uterus, cervix,
vagina and external genitalia – Methods of Population control by medical and surgical techniques. Comparative
reproductive events in camel
Principle, procedure and application of ultrasonography in farm and pet animal reproduction
UNIT-2 (VETERINARY OBSTETRICS)
Farm and pet animals - Maternal recognition of pregnancy – Applied Endocrinology of pregnancy – Pregnancy
diagnosis- Duration of pregnancy -Factors affecting gestation length- Care and management of pregnant animals-
Implantation, Placentation- Classification, functions –Wandering of ovum- Telegony- Superfetation and
Superfecundation – Clinical management of specific and non specific causes of abortion, extra uterine pregnancy, dropsy
of fetal membranes and fetus, mummification, maceration, cervicovaginal prolapse, uterine torsion and hysterocele.
Parturition- Signs of approaching parturition - Stages of parturition - Initiation and induction of parturition - lactational
disorders - Puerparium and factors affecting puerparium - Postpartum care of the dam and neonate in different species of
farm and pet animals - Dystocia – Classification - Clinical signs and diagnosis - Handling of Fetal and maternal
dystocia – Obstetrical interventions - Mutation – Forced extraction – Fetotomy – Cesarean section in small and large
animals – Maternal obstetrical paralysis - Retention of fetal membranes, Total uterine prolapse and common metabolic
diseases of puerperal period – Post partum hemorrhage – Sub involution of placental sites - Injuries incidental to
parturition - Post partum uterine infections – Post partum resumption of ovarian activity .
UNIT–3(VETERINARY ANDROLOGY AND A.I.)
Farm and pet animals - Comparative clinical reproductive anatomy and endocrinology of the male reproduction -
Common congenital and genetic defects of the male reproductive tract – Puberty and sexual maturity and factors
affecting them - Sexual behaviour and libido - Sperm transport, erection and ejaculation - Coital injuries and vices in
male animals - Semen and ejaculate – Semen collection techniques- Structure of Spermatozoa - Semen evaluation -
Semen extenders, dilution, preservation and post thaw evaluation - Artificial insemination techniques in farm and pet
animals - Forms of male infertility - Impotentia coeundi and impotentia generandi – Affections of the scrotum, testis,
accessory sex glands, penis and prepuce - Breeding soundness evaluation of bull – In vitro tests for evaluation of male
fertility - Medical and surgical techniques for population control of the male reproduction – Surgical procedure on the
male reproductive tract in farm and pet animals.
PRACTICAL
UNIT- 1 (VETERINARY GYNAECOLOGY)
Study of female genital organs using slaughter house specimens- Oestrus detection aids - Techniques of rectal palpation
of female reproductive tract - Gynaecological equipment and instruments -Vaginal exfoliative cytology and vaginoscopy-
Ultrasonography of female reproductive tract - Surgical procedures on the vulva, vagina and uterus-Study of pathological
specimens of female genital tract- Demonstration and practice of ovario-hysterectomy and panhysterectomy- Diagnostic
procedures in investigation of infertility in female animals
¹Hkkx IIIμ[k.M 4º Hkkjr dk jkti=k % vlk/kj.k 139
UNIT-2 (VETERINARY OBSTETRICS)
Study of pelvis and pelvimetry- Pregnancy diagnosis-Study of foetal membranes of domestic and pet animals -and
identification of normal and abnormal foetal membranes-Approaching signs of parturition- Stages of parturition-
Approach to an obstetrical case- Obstetrical anaesthesia - obstetrical instrument and equipment - Manipulation of foetal
malpresentation in phantom boxes - Maternal causes of dystocia and its management-Fetotomy in cadavers,
Demonstration of forceps delivery and Caesarean section in small and large animal clinical cases. Handling of prolapse
of genitalia.
UNIT–3 (VETERINARY ANDROLOGY, AI AND ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES)
Study of male genital organs using slaughter house specimens- Techniques of rectal palpation of the male reproductive
tract- Andrological and AI equipment -Vasectomy and castration -Surgical procedures on penis, prepuce and scrotum-
Planning and organization of AI centre-Preparation of teaser animals -Selection, care, training and maintenance of male
animal used for breeding purpose-Techniques of semen collection-Semen evaluation techniques -Sterilization, storage of
equipment used for semen collection and Artificial insemination-Preparation of extenders and extension of semen-
Preservation of semen-Thawing of semen and technique of AI-Handling and maintenance of LN2 containers. Diagnostic
procedures in investigation of infertility in male animals-Breeding soundness evaluation of bulls- Oestrus
synchronization procedures- Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer- In Vitro Fertilization
ANNUAL EXAMINATION
PAPERS U N I T S MAXIMUM MARKS WEIGHTAGE
THEORY
Paper-I 1 100 20
Paper-II 2 and 3 100 20
PRACTICAL
Paper-I 1 60 20

 

Paper - II 2 and 3 60 20

Facilities